The Establishment of Dubrovnik Dubrovnik was founded in the frst half of the 7th century by a group of refugees from Epidaurus (today’s Cavtat). They established their settlement at the island and named it Laus. Opposite of that location, at the foot of Srđ Mountain, Slavs developed their own settlement under the name of Dubrovnik (named by „Dub“ – type of wood). The settlements were separated by a channel which was flled in the 12th century, present Placa or Stradun, and since then the two settlements have been united. At that time the city walls started to be built as a protection from diﬀerent enemies ( Arabs, Venetian, Macedonians, Serbs, etc.) who wanted to conquer Dubrovnik. The fact that Dubrovnik’s walls are the only ones in Europe that remain untaken throughout their history is an impressive testimonial to their magnifcance.
The Government of Dubrovnik Republic
The Republican Constitution of Dubrovnik was strictly aristocratic. The population was divided into three classes: nobility, citizens, and artisans or plebeians. All eﬀective power was concentrated in the hands of nobility. The citizens were permitted to hold only minor ofces, the plebeians had no voice in government. Marriage between members of diﬀerent classes of the society was forbidden. The administrative bodies were the Grand Council (supreme governing body) and the Small Council (executive power) (from 1238.) and the Senate (from 1253). The head of the state was the Duke, elected for a term of ofce for one month.The government of the Republic was liberal in character and shows an early its concern for justice and humanitarian principles. The history of Dubrovnik from the End of Republic until today In 1809 Dubrovnik became part of the Illyrian Provinces. In 1815. by the resolution of Vienna Congress, Dubrovnik was annexed to Austria (later Austria-Hungary) and remained annexed until 1918 when it became part of the Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes. In 1929 the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and wasdivided into 33 districts. Until 1939 Dubrovnik was part of Zetska district and was then included in Banovina of Croatia. At the beginning of World War II Dubrovnik was frst part of the Independent State of Croatia. From April 1941 until September 1943 Dubrovnik was occupied by Germans. In October 1944 Partisans liberated Dubrovnik from Germans. In 1945 Dubrovnik became part of the Federative Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1963 the Federative Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia changed its name into Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and was consisting of 6 republics. Dubrovnik was part of the Socialistic Republic of Croatia. In 1990 the Republics of the Socialistic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia reached their independence. The Socialistic Republic of Croatia was renamed into Republic of Croatia. The Origin of the Name Dubrovnik The today’s name of Dubrovnik is derived from the Croatian word Dubrava, which means oak woods as, in the past, oak trees surrounded Dubrovnik. The Latin name Ragusa – Rausa, in use until the 15th century, originated from the rock (lat. Lausa – meaning rock) where the frst settlement was established.
Stories from Ancient Times
Its walls, palaces, streets and roofs tell stories from the rich history of Dubrovnik in which every traveller discovers his own story in the stone, sea, Stradun or at Porporela. This column is intended for those who wish to learn more about its rich history, tradition, customs, legends… It aims at inspiring you to visit it and experience your own, special and untold story.
The walls of Dubrovnik girdle a perfectly preserved complex of public and private, sacral and secular buildings representing all periods of the city’s history, beginning with its founding in the 7th century. Particular mention should be made of the citys main street, Stradun, the Princes Palace, the church of St Vlaho, the cathedral, three large monasteries, the Customs Ofce and the City Hall. The Republic of Dubrovnik was the centre of a separate political and territorial entity, and was proud of its culture, its achievements in commerce and especially of its freedom, preserved down through so many tempestuous centuries. City of poets, writers and scientists Many forms of artistic expression ﬂourished during the long and rich history of Dubrovnik. The Dubrovnik literature experienced its renaissance „rebirth“ in the 15th and 16th century, when many immortal works of literature were created. Dubrovnik had always hosted a myriad of ﬂourishing artists, such as the progressive renaissance poet Marin Držić or the widely-translated baroque poet Ivan Gundulić. Other famous citizens of Dubrovnik include the painter Vlaho Bukovac, the mathematician and astronomer Marin Getaldić, the composer and author of the croatian’s frst symphony Luka Sorkovčević and the scientist Ruđer Bošković.
Natural sites and climate
The green Mediterranean landscape, the azure depths of the Adriatic, white sea cliﬀs, fragrances of herbs growing in the clearings, historical gardens, the aquarium with the most intriguing species of the sea world are part of the heritage which the visitors discover in Dubrovnik and its surroundings. Ecology has become a more and more important part of our life, and the protection of environment and life in accordance with nature are both our obligation and duty. We take great pride in outstandingly preserved natural monuments, the worlds bluest and cleanest sea, the unique ﬂora and fauna, and the fascinating subterranean caves. The arrival in Dubrovnik oﬀers enjoyment in the azure sea and sky, unique sunsets and natural sights of our region. Dubrovnik and its territory enjoy typical Mediterranean climate, with hot and dry summers and gentle winters. Unspoilt nature along its coastline and the islands, and its lush Mediterranean vegetation witness the favourable climatic conditions. Blessed with an annual daily average of 2774 hours of sunshine, Dubrovnik is considered one of the sunniest places in Europe. The main characteristic of the sea around Dubrovnik is its cleanliness and its clarity. The verdict given to it in 1978 by the famous explorer Jacques Cousteau still holds true: Dubrovnik and its surroundings boast the clearest and the cleanest sea in all the Mediterranean.